Elena Govor, My Dark Brother, Sydney, 2000




About the author


Contents and excerpts


National Biography Award nomination

TV documentary


The Ngadjon people

Мой темнокожий брат



Primary sources


A chronological list of publications by Nikolai Ilin (Nicholas Illin)


Ilin, N., Shest’ mesiatsev v Soedinennykh Shtatakh Severnoi Ameriki [Six Months in the United States of North America], St Petersburg, 1876 (183 pp.).

Ilin, N., ‘Iuridicheskie zametki [Judicial notes]’, Sudebnaia gazeta, 12 January 1886.

Ilin, N., ‘V novom kraiu. Roman-khronika. Iz vremen zavoevaniia Turkestanskogo kraia [In the New Land. Novel-Chronicle. From the Times of Turkestan’s Conquest]’, Knizhki ‘Nedeli’, nos 1–11, 1886. Separate edition: Tashkent, 1913, 2 vols [quotations in the text are based on this edition].

Ilin, N., ‘Begletsy. Roman iz zhizni na dalekom Vostoke [The Fugitives. A Novel from Life in the Far East]’, Zhivopisnoe obozrenie, supplement, no. 10, 1888, pp.3–100.

Ilin, N., ‘Nezhdanno-negadanno [Against All Expectations]’, Zhivopisnoe obozrenie, 1889: no. 25, pp.402–03, 406; no. 26, pp.418–19, 422–23; no. 27, pp.2–3, 6.

Ilin, N.D., Dnevnik tolstovtsa [The Tolstoyan Diary], St Petersburg, 1892 (289 pp.).

         [Reviewed: Meshcherskii, Grazhdanin, 11 February 1892; Russkaia mysl’, no. 4, 1892, pp.155–56; Severnyi vestnik, no. 6, 1892, pp.75–79].

Ilin, N. ‘Oshibsia [Mistaken]’, Vestnik Evropy, no. 9, 1898, p.99.

Ilin, N., Pesni zemli [Songs of the Earth], edited and introduced by Stepan Golub, Paris, 1910 (104 pp.).

Il[in], N., ‘Russkie v Avstralii [Russians in Australia]’, Novoe vremia, 30 July 1912, p.2.

Ilin, N., ‘Pis’ma iz Avstralii [Letters from Australia]’, Novoe vremia, 14 August 1913, p.4.

Ilin, N. ‘Snova osen’ i snova toska! [Again autumn and again sadness!]’, Parus, no. 1, 1915, p.4.

Illin, N., ‘Correspondence. A Russian on Russia’, Cairns Post, 4 October 1918, p.2.


 A chronological list of publications by Leandro Illin


— in Cairns Post, Cairns, Queensland

Correspondence: ‘Land for Soldiers’, 15 October 1918, p.3; ‘A Russian on Bolshevism’, 3 March 1919, p.7.


— in North Queensland Register, Townsville, Queensland

Correspondence (under pseudonym ‘Meekolo’), 10 August 1925, p.16.

Contributions to ‘On the Track’ (under pseudonym ‘Meekolo’): 12 December 1925, p.102; 11 January 1926, p.98; 25 January 1926, p.80; 9 August 1926, p.67; 6 September 1926, p.41;

Letter to ‘On the Track’, with Bill Bowyang’s comments, 3 January 1927, p.69.


— in Herbert River Express, Ingham, Queensland

Correspondence: 7 December 1935, p.6; 30 April 1936; 26 November 1936; 19 December 1936; ‘North Australia’, 22 December 1936, p.4; 13 February 1937, p.4; ‘Advocate of silent pictures’, 3 June 1937, p.4; 17 June 1937, p.6; 30 April 1938, p.4; 12 July 1938, p.6; 28 July 1938, p.6; 9 August 1938, p.4; 13 August 1938, p.6; 23 August 1938, p.4; 27 August 1938, p.6; 15 September 1938, p.4; 17 January 1939, p.4; ‘To the electors of the Hinchinbrook Shire’, 14 March 1939, p.5; 28 March 1939, p.6; 30 March 1939, p.6; 2 May 1939, p.6; 3 June 1939, p.6; 18 July 1939, p.5; ‘Rowdyism at Band Concerts’, 28 September 1939, p.6; 19 December 1939, p.6; 11 April 1940, p.6; 2 July 1940, p.6; 13 August 1940, p.6; 17 August 1940, p.6; 23 November 1940, p.6; ‘Garden vandalism’, 20 November 1941, p.5; 18 December 1941, p.6; 20 December 1941, p.6; 7 February 1942, p.6; 17 February 1942, p.6; 3 March 1942, p.6; 15 September 1942, p.3; 1 October 1942, p.4; 14 November 1942, p.3; 24 November 1942, p.4; 15 July 1943, p.4; ‘An open letter to Mr C. G. Jesson, M.L.A.’, 31 August 1944, p.4; ‘An open letter to Mr C. G. Jesson’, 5 October 1944, p.4; [?] March 1945, p.4; 9 October 1945, p.4; 27 October 1945, p.4; 3 November 1945, p.4; 8 December 1945, p.4.





1 Australia


National Archives of Australia [NAA]

NAA (ACT): A1, 1913/2427, Nicholas Illin – Naturalization certificate.

NAA (ACT): A1, 1913/17541, Leandro Illin – Naturalization.

NAA (ACT): A1, 1914/3357, John Nikonets – Naturalization.

NAA (ACT): A1, 1914/11108, Felemon Alexeivch Fadchuck – Naturalization

NAA (ACT): A1, 1914/21026, Vlademir Balias – Naturalization.

NAA (ACT): A1, 1915/6639, Michael Prochoroff – Naturalization.

NAA (ACT): A1, 1921/18516, Gabriel Mironovich Ivanoff – Naturalization.

NAA (ACT): A1, 1926/11686, Gadaloff, M. – Naturalization certificate.

NAA (ACT): A1, 1928/10997, Jitnikoff, P. – Naturalization certificate.

NAA (ACT): A1, 1932/771, S. Kormishen – Naturalization certificate.

NAA (ACT): A1/1, 1923/27605, Strelnikoff, Vasil – Naturalization.

NAA (ACT): A3/1, NT1913/1156, pt 1–3 – Russian Emigrants for Northern Territory. 1911–1913.
Illin, L., ‘Report of the Northern Territory’ [1912] (92 pp.).
Vladimirov, K.N., ‘Report on the Northern Territory of Australia’, 1912 (63 pp.).

NAA (ACT): A435, A46/4/592, Illin, Romelio – Naturalization file.

NAA (ACT): A441/1, 1951/13/8524, Lamin, V.N.

NAA (ACT): A659/1, 1940/1/7443 Homenko, N.P. – Naturalization.

NAA (ACT): A6122/40, 111, Summary of Communism, vol.1.

NAA (Qld): BP4/1, 66/4/2165, Papers relating to miscellaneous events involving use of a red flag.


Queensland State Archives, Brisbane [QSA]

QSA: A/45328, [785M], Russians 1911–1915.

QSA: B/561–B/563.

QSA: CPA, 8E/335, Emily Robinson.

QSA: CPA, 8J/454, Jenny Brown.

QSA: CPA, 8P/27, Paddy Robinson.

QSA: CPA, 15/1064, 15/1543, 15/2204, 15/2212, 15/2241, 15/2536.

QSA: CPA, 16/2728

QSA: CPA, 19/1649, 19/2671, 19/4041, 19/5579, 20/1840.

QSA: CPA, 26/2404, 26/2483, 26/3270, 26/3388.

QSA: CPA, Correspondence files 1901–1944; Bundle A/58692, Complaints 1933, 33/3789 Re: Dick Hoolihan.

QSA: Department of Native Affairs, 8G/18, George Williamson.

QSA: EDU/Z 436, Butchers Creek School.

QSA: HOM/J564, no. 6629 of 1925, Correspondence—Home Office.

QSA: IMM/132, Register of Immigrants.

QSA: LANP69A, 1545, 1546, 1547.

QSA: LAN/DF 85, Atherton 1508.

QSA: LAN/DF 89, Atherton 1545, 1546, 1547.

QSA: LAN/DF 100, Atherton 1667, 1669.

QSA: LAN/DF 118, Atherton 1937.

QSA: LAN/DF 132, Atherton 2090A.

QSA: LAN/DF 151, Atherton 2615.

QSA: LAN/DF, 2501A, Herberton 1065.


Other Australian archives

Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies manuscript collection [AIATSIS]:

Mjöberg, E., Amongst Stone Age People in the Queensland Wilderness, translated from Swedish by S.M. Fryer (manuscript held) [Original: Mjöberg, E., Bland stenaldersmanniskor i Queenslands vildmaker, Stockholm, Albert Bonniers Forlag, 1918].

Mjöberg, E., ‘Contribution to the knowledge of the natives of North Queensland’, (English manuscript translation held) [Original: Mjöberg, E., ‘Beitrage zur Kenntnis Eingeborenen von Nord-Queensland’, Archiv für Anthropologie, B. 20, 1925].

Sutton, P.J., ‘Gugu-Badhun and its Neighbours. A Linguistic Salvage Study’, Canberra, Sydney, 1973 (AIATSIS manuscript collection).

General Registry Office, Brisbane:

Henry Dale and Ariadna Illin Steinkamp marriage certificate 12/0956.

Leandro Illin and Kitty Clarke marriage certificate 15/2266.

Thomas Denyer and Emily Russell marriage certificate 16/3045.

Queensland birth, death and marriage records:

Birth 1850–1914; death 1850–1919; marriage 1856–1919.


2 Russia


Institute of Russian Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Pushkin’s House), St Petersburg [IRLI]

N.D. Ilin, ‘Avtobiografiia [Autobiography]’ [1892], f. 377, no. 1347, folios 1–3.

N.D. Ilin to S.A. Vengerov, [April] 1892, f. 377, no. 1347, folios 6–9.


Russian State Archive of Literature and Art, Moscow [RGALI]

N.D. Ilin to N.N. Ge, f. 731, op. 1, d. 16 — 26.02, 20.04, 28.06, 7.07, 9.07, 18.08 & October, 1890; April–May, 1891.

N.D. Ilin to N.N. Ge, f. 731, op. 1, d. 14 — 28.01.1891.

N.D. Ilin to A.K. Ilina, f. 731, op. 1, d. 62 — October & 21.11.1890; 23.01.1891.

A.K. Ilina to N.N. Ge, f. 731, op. 1, d. 17 — 16.11.1890; 13.01, 22.01, 1.02 & 14.05, 1891.

N.D. Ilin, ‘Pis’mo iz Avstralii [A letter from Australia]’, f. 1666, op. 1, d. 1466.

V. Korolenko to N. Ilin, 29.08.1913; N. Ilin to Korolenko, ca. October 1913; N. Ilin Letter to Discourse, 1.11.1913 — all f. 1666, op. 1, d. 384.


Russian State Historical Archive, St Petersburg [RGIA]

‘[Ivan Gerasimov Ivanov]’, f. 1405, op. 91, d. 3531.

‘Iliny Leandr i Romelii... o razreshenii priniat’ inostrannoe poddanstvo [Ilins Leandr and Romelii ... about permission to take foreign citizenship]’, RGIA, f. 1412, op. 9, folios 1–2.


Russian State Military-Historical Archive, Moscow [RGVIA]

‘D.N. Ilin, the 6th’, f. 395, op. 16, d. 492.

‘N.D. Ilin. Posluzhnoi spisok [Service record]. 27.09.1882’, f. 400, op. 9, d. 21078.


Russian State Naval Archive, St Petersburg [RGA VMF]

N.D. Ilin to the crew of the Lieutenant Ilin 22.05.1894, Colón, Argentina, f. 2, op. 1, d. 7, folios 73–74.

A. Krotkov, ‘O netochnostiakh publikuemykh sochinenii [About inaccuracies of published works]’, f. 417, op. 6, d. 83.


Saratov State Archive [SSA]

‘Delo po prosheniiu poruchika Sergeia Alekseeva Ilina o vnesenii ego v dvorianskuiu rodoslovnuiu knigu [File on application of Lieutenant Sergei Alekseev Ilin concerning his inclusion into the Noblemen family register]’, f. 19, op. 1, d. 84.


3 Argentina


Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Buenos Aires [CEML]

Listado parcial de immigrantes [List of immigrants arrived on the Mendoza on 29 June 1897].


4 Private archives


Elena Govor’s archives, Canberra

Flores, Ellen [Nellie] Dale, ‘Memoirs’, 1996.

Illin, Leanne, [Family History] (typescript, 2pp).

Illin, Leanne, Phyllis May Illin (née Rosendale). 20.11.23–6.9.93. [Commemorative booklet, compiled by Leanne Illin, Townsville 1993].

Illin, Romelio, ‘En la Frontera (En Guarda Raya) (Hecho por el relate de mi padre, sucedido en les ańos de la década de 1890) [On the border (Border-guard) (based on my father’s account, of events of the 1890s)]’ (manuscript provided by Illin-Mackay family, Honduras/USA).

Mackay, Somerled Jnr, ‘Genealogical Tree of the Illin Family’, 1996.

Mackay, Somerled Jnr, ‘Memoirs’, 1997.


with the Atkinson family (tapes 15A–16B)

with George Balias (tape 12A).

with the Gadaloff family (tape 10AB).

with the Illin family (tapes 1A–9B, 13A–14B, 17A).

with Basil Strelnikoff (tape 11A).

with Ric Throssell, 17.09.1997.

Letters to author:

from Flora Hoolihan, 1995–99.

from Basil Strelnikoff, 16.12.1997.

from Roy Phelps, 16.03.1997.

from Valentina Provodina, 1996–2000.


Flora Hoolihan’s archives, Townsville, Queensland

Illin, N., Vostochnaia Legenda [The Orient Legend (poem)] (41 pp.).

Illin, N., poetry.

Family photos with inscriptions (1880s–1960s).

Postcards to N. Illin and N. Rosalieff, 1910s.


Vera Ketchell’s archives, Malanda, Queensland

[Daniel, Ludmila] to L. Illin, 1910.

Illin, L. to Harry Williams, early 1930s.

Illin L., [Draft of speech about Dan Sheahan’s poetry], ca. 1938.

Minister for Home Security to Leandro Illin, 21.04.1942.

Sheahan, Dan to L. Illin, 26.01.1938.

Correspondence between L. Illin, R. Illin, T. Illin, and H. Illin, 1939–45.

Family photos with inscriptions (1890s–1960s).


Other private archives

Gadaloff, M., ‘Memoirs’, 1971: in possession of Peter Gadaloff, Southport, Queensland.

Michael Gadaloff’s archives: in possession of Kathleen Gadaloff, Brisbane.

Greenvale Station Records: in possession of Henry Atkinson, Lucky Downs, Queensland (microfilm copy at Queensland State Library).

Strelnikoff, V., ‘Memoirs’: in possession of Basil Strelnikoff, Mareeba, Queensland.


 Secondary sources




‘Araluen’, in P. Pierce (ed.), The Oxford Literary Guide to Australia, Melbourne, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp.34–35.

Arbitman, E.N., Zhizn’ i tvorchestvo N.N. Ge [Ge’s Life and Works], Saratov, 1972.

Atkinson, R.L., Northern Pioneers, Townsville, 1979.

‘Bowman, David’, in The Australian Encyclopaedia, vol.2, Sydney, Angus & Robertson, 1958, pp.79–80.

Chekhov, A., Five Plays, translated by R. Hingley, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1980.

Dixon, R.M.W., The Dyirbal Language of North Queensland, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1972.

Dixon, R.M.W., ‘Tribes, languages and other boundaries in northeast Queensland’, in N. Peterson (ed.), Tribes and Boundaries in Australia, Canberra, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, 1976.

Dixon [R.M.W.] Bob, Searching for Aboriginal Languages. Memoirs of a Field Worker, St Lucia, University of Queensland Press, 1983.

Evans, R., ‘Bleakley, John William’, in Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol.7, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1979, pp.325–26.

[Gadalov (Gadaloff), M.], ‘We do not repent having left our native land’, in: Terse Information about Queensland. Queries and Replies, Brisbane, 1915, pp.54–55.

Gerakov, G., Tverdost’ dukha russkikh [Russians’ Strength of Mind], Petrograd, 1813.

Govor, E., Australia in the Russian Mirror, Changing Perceptions 1770–1919, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1997.

Harris, D.R., ‘Adaptation to a tropical rain-forest environment: Aboriginal subsistence in Northeastern Queensland’, in N.G. Blurton-Jones & V. Reynolds (eds), Human Behaviour and Adaptation, London, Taylor & Francis, 1978, pp.112–34.

Hiscock, P., & Kershaw, A.P., ‘Palaeoenvironments and prehistory of Australia’s tropical Top End’, in J. Dodson (ed.), The Naive Lands: prehistory and environmental change in Australia and the south-west Pacific, Melbourne, Longman Cheshire, 1992, pp.43–72.

Howie-Willis, I., ‘Bleakley, J.’, in The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia, vol.1, Canberra, Aboriginal Studies Press, 1994, pp.134–35.

‘Ilin D.S.’, in Bol’shaia sovetskaia entsiklopediia, 3rd edn, vol.10, Moscow, 1972, p.135.

‘Ilin D.S.’, in Russkii biograficheskii slovar’, Reprint, New York, 1962, vol.8, pp.97–98.

Kabo, V.R., Proiskhozhdenie i ranniaia istoriia aborigenov Avstralii [The Origin and Early History of the Australian Aborigines], Moscow, Nauka, 1969.

Kabo, V., The Road to Australia: Memoirs, Canberra, Aboriginal Studies Press, 1998.

Kendall, H., ‘Araluen’, in My Country: Australian Poetry and Short Stories: Two Hundred Years, vol.1, Sydney, Ure Smith Press, 1992, pp.124–25.

Kennedy, M., Born a Half-Caste, Canberra, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, 1985.

Koshel, P.A., Istoriia syska v Rossii [History of Criminal Investigation in Russia], vol.1, Minsk, 1996.

Kriukov, N.A., Avstraliia: Sel’skoe khoziaistvo Avstralii v sviazi s obshchim pazvitiem strany [Australia: Australian Agriculture in Connection with the General Development of the Country], Moscow, 1906.

Loos, N., Mabo, K., Edward Koiki Mabo: His Life and Struggle for Land Rights, Brisbane, University of Queensland Press, 1996.

Lukin, V.M., ‘Ilin, N.D.’, in Russkie pisateli. 1800–1917. Biograficheskii slovar’, vol.2, Moscow, 1992, p.413.

Murphy, D.J., ‘Bowman, David’, in Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol.7, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1979, pp.364–65.

Murphy, D.J., ‘Gillies, William Neil’, in Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol.9, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1983, p.11.

Nilsson, J.A., ‘Mackay, John’, in Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol.5, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1974, pp.169–70

Politicheskaia katorga i ssylka. Biograficheskii spravochnik [Political Penal Servitude and Exile. Biographical Reference Book], Moscow, 1934.

Porudominskii, V., Nikolai Ge, Moscow, Iskusstvo, 1970.

Repin, I.E., Pis’ma k pisateliam i literaturnym deiateliam [Letters to Writers and Literary Workers], Moscow, Iskusstvo, 1950.

Repin, I.E., Dalekoe blizkoe [Far Close Past], Moscow, Iskusstvo, 1964.

Sheahan, D., Songs from the Canefields, Ingham, 1972; Rev. edn, Ingham, 1986.

Short, E.H., The Nation Builders, Dimbulah, 1988.

Singh, G., Kershaw, A.P., Clark, R., ‘Quaternary vegetation and fire history in Australia’, in A.M.G. Gill, R.H. Groves, I.R. Noble (eds), Fire and the Australian Biota, Canberra, Australian Academy of Science, 1981, pp.23–54.

Sokolovskii, M.K., Pamiatka 3-go gusarskogo Elisavetgradskogo ... polka [Booklet of the 3rd Elizabetgrad Hussar ... Regiment], St Petersburg, 1914.

Stasov, V., Nikolai Nikolaevich Ge, ego zhizn’, proizvedeniia, perepiska [Nikolai Nikolaevich Ge, his Life, Works, Correspondence], Moscow, 1904.

Throssell, R., Wild Weeds and Wind Flowers. The Life and Letters of Katharine Susannah Prichard, Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1975.

Thwaites, L. & R., The History of Araluen, [Braidwood, 1971].

Tolstoy, L.N., Polnoe sobranie sochinenii [Complete Collection of Works], Moscow: vol.51, 1952, pp.98, 223; vol.65, 1953, pp.168–69, 178, 183, 210; vol.88, 1957, p.200.

Tolstoy, L., The Kreutzer Sonata and Other Stories, N.Y., Penguin Books, 1985.

Vedomost’ spravok o sudimosti. Izdanie Ministerstva Iustitsii [Register of Convictions Published by the Ministry of Justice], part 1, book 1, St Petersburg, 1887.

Waters, J., ‘[Memoirs]’, in Short, The Nation Builders, pp.36–38.


Periodicals, newspapers


Balmont, K.D., ‘Okeaniia’, Vokrug sveta, no. 44, 1913, pp.716–18.

Campbell, C., ‘Former NQ man keeps 65 y. o. vow’ [undated clipping, presumably North Queensland Register, 1980s].

‘Captain Mackay’s son dies in Honduras’ [undated clipping, presumably North Queensland Register, 1980s].

Carron, E.T., ‘Correspondence’, Herbert River Express, 23 August 1938, p.4.

‘Citizen’, ‘Correspondence’, Herbert River Express, 15 August 1940, p.6.

Cooke, G., ‘Grandson of “Stolen Generations” architect sorry’, Canberra Times, 24 May 1998, p.4.

Core, M., [Memories], North Queensland Register, 26 July, 2, 9, 16 August 1980.

‘Death at 98’ [undated clipping, presumably Townsville Bulletin, February–March 1955].

‘Deportation only solution to vendetta problem’, Sunday Mail, Brisbane, 10 January 1937, p.4.

Fry, M., ‘Memories of Mrs C.J. Fry, nee Mysie Davidson’, Bulletin of Eacham Historical Society, no. 24, 1978, pp.1–2, no. 25, 1978, p.1.

Gadalov [Gadaloff], M., ‘Russkie emigranty v Avstralii [Russian emigrants in Australia]’, Dalekaia okraina, 21 August 1911, p.2.

Gelston, H.R., ‘Bolshevism and Disloyalty’, Cairns Post, 15 April 1919.

Govor, E., ‘Il’iny iz plemeni Ngadzhan [Illins from Ngadjon tribe]’, Avstraliada, Sydney, no. 10, 1997, pp.5–9.

Govor, E. ‘Po sledam Nikolaia Manovicha, pervogo russkogo sviashchennika v Avstralii [On the track of Nikolai Manovich, the first Russian priest in Australia]’, Avstraliada, Sydney, no. 13, 1997, pp.1–3.

Govor E. ‘Sviashchennik-sotsialist ili samozvanets-donoschik. K biografii Nikolaia Manovicha [Priest-socialist or impostor-informer. Towards a biography of Nikolai Manovich]’, Avstraliada, Sydney, no. 16, 1998, p.7.

Govor E. ‘Malen’kaia Sibir’ na plato Aterton [Little Siberia on the Atherton Tablelands]’, Avstraliada, Sydney, 1999: no. 20, pp.5–9; no. 21, pp.10–13.

Gzel, A., ‘Pamiati Evgeniia Vasil’evicha Daniel [To the memory of Evgenii Vasil’evich Daniel]’, Chuzhbina, Brisbane, 1930, no. 5, pp.18–19.

Illin, R., ‘Aborigines’, Townsville Daily Bulletin, 6 January 1982.

Klaatsch, H., ‘Mumie aus Australien und Reisebericht des Hrn. Klaatsch aus Sydney’, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, B. 37, 1905, pp.772–81.

Klaatsch, H., ‘Some notes on scientific travel amongst the black population of tropical Australia in 1904, 1905, 1906’, Report of the Eleventh Meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, held at Adelaide, 1907, pp.577–92.

‘Leandro impressed with city lifestyle’ [undated clipping, presumably North Queensland Register, 1980–81]

‘Life’s end for grazing pioneer, Mary Ada Core’, North Queensland Register, 23 February, 1980.

‘Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Foot’, North Queensland Register, 22 March 1930, p.30.

‘Mr. and Mrs. James Atkinson and family’, North Queensland Register, 24 August 1930, p.30.

Naessens, N., ‘Mackay: Dynasty behind the sleepy coastal town’, Register (Townsville), 10 May 1984, p.13.

‘New settlers for Queensland. Patagonian Welshmen’, Cairns Post, 23 March 1911.

‘Old Soldier’, ‘Correspondence’, Herbert River Express, 11 August 1938, p.6; 20 August 1938, p.6.

‘Old subscriber’, ‘Sunday night picture shows’, Herbert River Express, 19 November 1940, p.6.

‘On the Track’, North Queensland Register, 17 January 1927, p.74; 31 January 1927, p.23; 7 February 1927, p.91.

Paz, F.F. ‘Sammy, el inmortal del pugilato’, La Prensa, 26 May 1985, p.21.

‘Return of the Russian Delegates. An interesting interview’, Cairns Post, 14 May 1912, p.8.

‘Romelio Illin: Primer contratista para el aseo de nuestra ciudad’, Tiempo — El Diario de Honduras, 29 June 1976, p.11.

Roth, W., ‘Superstition, Magic, and Medicine’, North Queensland Ethnography Bulletin, no. 5, 1903.

‘Russians in Queensland’, Brisbane Courier, 28 December 1911, p.5.

Schultz, J., ‘From Queensland with distinction’, Courier-Mail, 12 April 1997 (weekend supplement, p.5).

Sharp, R.L., ‘Tribes and totemism in north-east Australia’, Oceania, 1939: vol.9, no. 3, pp.254–75; no. 4, pp.439–61.

Sheahan, Dan, ‘The Councillors’ Rocks’, North Queensland Register, 19 February 1938, p.66.

Sinclair, W.B., ‘The Aboriginal’, North Queensland Register, 17 August 1925, p.16.

Tindale, N.B, & Birdsell, J.B., ‘Tasmanoid tribes in Northern Queensland’, Records of the South Australian Museum, vol.7, 1941, pp.1–9.

‘“Topsy” born during time of bloodshed’, Northern Territory News, 26 March 1988, p.18.

Tranter, H., ‘The Russian Settlers of Butcher’s Creek’, Bulletin of Eacham Historical Society, no. 222, 1997, pp.1–2.

Villanueva, E. ‘Un poeta ruso, ignorado, descansa para siempre en San Pedro Sula’, Tiempo — El Diario de Honduras, 13 October 1971, p.18.